From The Awakening:”The voice of the sea speaks to the soul. The touch of the sea is sensuous, enfolding the body in its soft, close embrace.”
Read The Awakening online
Time and place
When the novel was written and published
Questions and answers
New research: “The Awakening and American Libraries“
A dance production
A theatre production
Barbara Kingsolver on The Awakening
Accurate printed texts
Articles and book chapters about the novel
Books that discuss the novel
You can read the novel online at a University of North Carolina site, among other places.
In print you can find the novel in The Complete Works of Kate Chopin and in the Library of America Kate Chopin volume. There are many paperback editions of the novel available today. Several include background readings, critical comments, bibliographies of scholarly articles and books, Chopin short stories, and other materials. For publication information about these books, see the section “For students and scholars” near the bottom of this page.
- Edna Pontellier
- Léonce Pontellier, husband of Edna
- Etienne and Raoul Pontellier, children of Edna and Léonce
- A quadroon who cares for Etienne and Raoul
- Madame Aline Lebrun, owner of a pension on Grand Isle
- Robert Lebrun, son of Madame Lebrun
- Victor Lebrun, brother of Robert Lebrun
- Mariequita, woman of Spanish descent who lives on Grand Isle
- Adèle Ratignolle, guest at the pension on Grand Isle
- Alphonse Ratignolle, a pharmacist, husband of Adèle
- Mademoiselle Reisz, a pianist, guest at the pension on Grand Isle
- Others on Grand Isle–two lovers, a lady in black, the Farival twins, old Monsieur Farival, Beaudelet. . . .
- Madame Antoine, woman of Chênière Caminada across the bay from Grand Isle
- Tonie, son of Madame Antoine; he and his mother appear in the Chopin short story “At Chênière Caminada”
- Old Celestine, Ellen, Joe, and other servants in the Pontellier’s house in New Orleans
- Doctor Mandelet, the Pontellier’s physician
- Edna’s father, a former colonel in the Confederate army
- Alcée Arobin, a young man of fashion in New Orleans
- Mrs. Highcamp, friend of Alcée Arobin
- James Highcamp, husband of Mrs. Highcamp; the Highcamp’s daughter
- Mrs. Merrimam and Miss Mayblunt, guests at Edna’s part in Chapter XXX of the novel
- Gouvernail, a journalist, also a guest at the party. His name may be understood as a tag name; in French it means a rudder, a tiller, with the implication that he is someone who knows the direction, who understands where things are headed. He plays a central role in the Chopin stories “A Respectable Woman” and “Athénaîse”
- Madame Pontellier, mother of Léonce
The Awakening is set in the late nineteenth century on Grand Isle, off the coast of Louisiana; on the island Chênière Caminada across the bay from Grand Isle (the island was destroyed in an 1893 hurricane); and in the city of New Orleans. It begins on Grand Isle, shifts to New Orleans, and concludes on Grand Isle.
Readers and scholars have been discussing the novel’s themes for a hundred years, and their views vary widely. Early critics condemned the book for its amoral treatment of adultery, and some readers today share that view. But from the 1960s on, most scholars and readers in the USA and abroad have come to think of Kate Chopin as “the first woman writer in her country to accept passion as a legitimate subject for serious, outspoken fiction,” to cite the words of Per Seyersted, and they see Chopin as one of America’s essential authors focused on women’s lives. The closing chapter in the recent Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin describes the full range of ideas people have found in the novel since its publication. You can also read about themes in Kate Chopin’s stories and novels on the Themes page of this site.
The novel was begun in 1897 and completed on January 21, 1898. Kate Chopin’s original title was A Solitary Soul. It was published as The Awakening by Herbert S. Stone & Company in Chicago on April 22, 1899. The title page:
You can find complete composition dates and publication dates for Chopin’s works on pages 1003 to 1032 of The Complete Works of Kate Chopin, edited by Per Seyersted (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969, 2006).
Q: Do you know why Kate Chopin’s original title for the novel, A Solitary Soul, was changed to The Awakening and how the change affected the success of the book?
A: Sorry, but we know of no explanation for who changed the title or why. A rumor in an 1899 St. Louis newspaper review suggests that the publisher changed it. If that’s true, it may have been for many reasons. And we know of no way that someone could determine how the title change may have affected the novel’s success in 1899 or since.
A: Not so far as we can tell. Emily Toth, Chopin’s biographer, tried to verify that claim—one that has been repeated for decades—but could find no evidence to support it. But it is true that The New York Times on July 6, 1902, reported that the Evanston, Illinois, Public Library had removed from its open shelves The Awakening and other books that the library board found objectionable (the article is on p. 9 of the newspaper). And the 2011 Banned or Challenged Books site sponsored by The American Library Association and other groups notes that the novel was “challenged at the Oconee County, Ga. Library (2011) because the cover of the book–a novel about a woman whose desires run against the family structure of the 1890s–shows a painting of a woman’s bare chest and upset the patron.”
Q: In Chapter 30 of the novel a character named Gouvernail mutters two lines of poetry. Do you know where they came from?
A: Yes–and Gouvernail also quotes lines of poetry in Chopin’s short story, “A Respectable Woman.” The lines in this novel are from a sonnet titled “A Cameo” by Algernon Charles Swinburne:
There was a graven image of Desire
Painted with red blood on a ground of gold
Passing between the young men and the old,
And by him Pain, whose body shone like fire,
And Pleasure with gaunt hands that grasped their hire.
Of his left wrist, with fingers clenched and cold,
The insatiable Satiety kept hold,
Walking with feet unshod that pashed the mire.
The senses and the sorrows and the sins,
And the strange loves that suck the breasts of Hate
Till lips and teeth bite in their sharp indenture,
Followed like beasts with flap of wings and fins.
Death stood aloof behind a gaping grate,
Upon whose lock was written Peradventure.
As we explain above, Gouvernail’s name may be understood as a tag name; in French it means a rudder, a tiller, with the implication that he is someone who knows the direction, who understands where things are headed. Here his quoting the lines of Swinburne’s sonnet suggests that he senses a figure of death at Edna’s party.
A: There are a couple of ways to think about this.
It’s simply a fact that many people with French and Spanish roots lived in Louisiana when Kate Chopin lived there, and some of them spoke more than one language. Most of the characters in The Awakening speak French, Spanish, Creole, or all three, in addition to English. Like Mark Twain and other writers of her time, Chopin was determined to be accurate in the way she recorded the speech of the people she focused on in her work.
But it may be helpful to recognize that Edna Pontellier herself understands French and French culture imperfectly. She has only, as the novel points out in Chapter 2, “a small infusion of French which seemed to have been lost in dilution.” She is not a Creole; she is not from Louisiana and did not grow up a Roman Catholic; she is out of her Kentucky or Mississippi Presbyterian environment, out of her native element. So to some extent your puzzlement over those French expressions may be similar to hers. There are suggestions in the novel that at times Edna is not fully aware of what’s going on around her.
A few editions of The Awakening include translations of French expressions, and Chopin usually subtly glosses such expressions in the text. Missing the meaning of a French phrase is not likely to lead to a mistake in understanding the novel.
Q: Does Edna Pontellier have sex with Alcée Arobin in Chapter 27 of the novel?
A: Yes. The language in Chapter 27 reflects literary conventions of the 1890s. Kate Chopin almost certainly would not have found a publisher for the novel if she had included more sexually explicit phrasing.
Q: What about the more explicit phrasing in “The Storm”?
A: Chopin did not try to publish that short story. It did not appear in print until long after her death.
Q: How many times (and where) did Alcée and Edna consummate their love?
A: There was no love involved (Chapter 28), but the text shows that Edna and Alcée have sex in the house on Esplanade Street (Chapter 27) and again after the party when they go to the pigeon-house (Chapter 31).
Question from Mary Mahoney: Do you know the rest of the words and the melody of “Si tu savais,” the song that appears in Chapters 14 and 19 of the novel and then again in the party scene in Chapter 30? Is it a real song, or did Kate Chopin make it up?
A: We posed this question to Chopin scholars Emily Toth and Thomas Bonner. Their responses:
Emily Toth: It’s a real song, written by Michael William Balfe, an Irish composer of art songs. It seems the song was written about 1859. There is online a Balfe fan site and the sheet music for the song.
Tom Bonner: Interesting connection, but, except for the refrain, the lyrics are different from those in the novel. Apparently, the phrase “Ah, si tu savais” was and is used widely in lyrics. Is it possible that Chopin heard the Balfe song performed and simply recalled it imperfectly? Or purposely amended the lyrics to reflect her multiple uses of “eyes” in her descriptions? A puzzle.
Jenny Lind and Adelina Patti both sang Balfe songs and arias; the singers visited New Orleans well before Chopin arrived, but they were so popular in the city–and nationally–that the music they sang at the French Opera House was likely picked up by local and other visiting singers. These singers also performed in St. Louis. And so Chopin could have heard the lyrics, remembered the key phrase, and used it.
Emily Toth: This seems most likely to me.
Mary Mahoney: I believe Balfe also wrote “Come into the garden Maude” and “I dreamt I dwelt in marble halls”. Both those were popular in Britain, when I was a child in the ‘thirties. I heard them on the radio in the “Music Hall” (i.e. Variety) broadcasts. A holdover from Victorian days I think.
Ah well, that was a long time ago.
Q: Do critics ever write about clothing and fashion in The Awakening? It seems to me it’s an important matter.
A: Yes, that subject has often come up. Emily Toth, for one, writes that throughout the novel “Edna sheds more and more veils, physically and spiritually, until at the end, she is naked.” And Katherine Joslin discusses clothing at length in “Kate Chopin on fashion in a Darwinian world,” an essay in the Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin.
Q: In Chapter 22, what does Dr. Mandelet mean when he asks Léonce Pontellier if Edna has “been associating of late with a circle of pseudo‑intellectual women‑‑super‑spiritual superior beings? My wife has been telling me about them”?
A: He’s most likely referring to the spiritualism movement, which was popular in the United States at the time Kate Chopin was writing the novel. Kathleen Butterly Nigro, an American English professor who teaches a class on 19th century spiritualism, notes that people involved in the movement believe “that through the use of a medium, they would be able to tap into the energy of people who had died.” Its rise coincided with the end of the Civil War, which killed more than 750,000 Americans. “Because so many people had died in the war, the notion that individuals could possibly stay in contact with people they had lost was very appealing,” Nigro says.
Q: Was The Awakening forgotten until Kate Chopin’s literary revival in the 1970s?
A: With a few exceptions here and there, it was. But her short stories were not forgotten. Several of the stories appeared in anthologies from the 1920s on, and several important scholars were writing about her fiction for decades before it caught fire with the appearance of her Complete Works in 1969.
Q: Was Kate Chopin involved in the women’s suffrage movement, in the progressive movements for educational reform, health care reform, or sanitation improvement? Was she involved in any other historically significant happenings of her time?
A: Kate Chopin was an artist, a writer of fiction, and like many artists–in the nineteenth century and today–she considered that her primary responsibility to people was showing them the truth about life as she understood it.
So if you’re asking if Kate Chopin was involved in social activism as political scientists today would understand that term, the answer is no. She was not a social reformer. Her goal was not to change the world but to describe it accurately, to show people the truth about the lives of women and men in the nineteenth-century America she knew.
If, however, you’re asking if Chopin was involved in “historically significant happenings” as many artists would understand those words, then the answer is yes. She was among the first American authors to write truthfully about women’s hidden lives, about women’s sexuality, and about some of the complexities and contradictions in women’s relationships with their husbands.
As the critic Per Seyersted phrases it, Kate Chopin “broke new ground in American literature. She was the first woman writer in her country to accept passion as a legitimate subject for serious, outspoken fiction. Revolting against tradition and authority; with a daring which we can hardy fathom today; with an uncompromising honesty and no trace of sensationalism, she undertook to give the unsparing truth about woman’s submerged life. She was something of a pioneer in the amoral treatment of sexuality, of divorce, and of woman’s urge for an existential authenticity. She is in many respects a modern writer, particularly in her awareness of the complexities of truth and the complications of freedom.”
Artists like Kate Chopin see the truth and help others to see it. Once people are able to recognize the truth, then they can create social reform movements and set out to correct wrongs and injustices.
Q: So does that mean that what I read on a blog is true, that Kate Chopin “was an integral part of the evolution of feminism, providing early 20th century readers with feminist literature that is still highly respected and studied today”?
A: No, it’s almost certainly not true, simply because, from everything we can tell, little of what many readers today consider Chopin’s feminist literature was read in the early years of the twentieth century–The Awakening, for example, or “The Story of an Hour,” or, certainly, “The Storm.” You might argue that after the 1960s or 1970s Chopin became “an integral part of the evolution of feminism,” but she probably had little or no influence on early 20th-century feminist readers.
Q: Have other writers focused works on women’s experience, on a woman’s awakening?
A; Yes, many have. Critic Susan Rosowski reminds us that fairy tales like “Snow White,” “The Little Mermaid,” and “Sleeping Beauty” are about female development, as are novels like Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, Willa Cather’s My Mortal Enemy, and Margaret Atwood’s Lady Oracle. Rosowski considers The Awakening a prototype of the novel of awakening.
Q: I am sure that when I was in college, my professor told me that in Chapter 13 when Edna is resting at Madame Antoine’s house (after leaving the church with Robert) that she masturbated. I cannot find this anywhere in research about the book. Can you confirm this? Isn’t it true that this was one of the reasons The Awakening was not widely accepted in Chopin’s time? That’s the impression I have.
A: Second question first: So far as we can tell, all comments about The Awakening published in Chopin’s lifetime are widely available, and all have been discussed by scholars, teachers, students, and others for decades. Nothing in any of those comments mentions the possibility of a masturbation incident in the book. It is clear that masturbation was not one of the reasons the book was attacked by critics in the 1890s.
About the first question, here is what two Chopin scholars have to say:
Emily Toth: A lot of people teach as fact that when Edna massages her arms and admires them at Madame Antoine’s, she’s masturbating. I don’t see it that way. I think it’s admiration, maybe narcissism. I’ve never seen anything about it in print, and personally I don’t think it’s a useful interpretation. As Freud allegedly said, “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.” I’ll add what I say: “Sometimes an arm is just–an arm.”
Tom Bonner: This is a gross misreading by the letter writer’s professor. Even if the professor is using the word “masturbating” metaphorically, it is still a distorted reading. I have run into no articles citing masturbation and Chopin. One of the real problems with many readers today is the imposition of twenty-first century sensibilities on a nineteenth-century author’s work.
Q: I’m a teacher and would like help with the French pronunciation of names in The Awakening. Can you tell me how to pronounce the more common names?
A: French speakers would pronounce the French names in the novel as on this chart. The names not included here (like Highcamp or Reisz) are ones that come from other languages (English or German, perhaps) and so would probably have been pronounced as they would be in English.
The names are transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet. If you’re not familiar with IPA transcription, you should be able to find a guide on many websites.
Q: Is The Awakening available on a CD so I can listen to it as I drive?
A: Yes, there are at least five versions available. You can find them through a library or a bookstore or online. And Reuters and other media outlets are reporting that Audible.com has hired actors to produce “tour de force performances” of new audiobooks. The lineup includes Anne Hathaway reading The Wonderful Wizard of Oz by L. Frank Baum, Colin Firth reading The End of the Affair by Graham Greene, Kate Winslet reading Thérèse Raquin by Émile Zola, Nicole Kidman reading To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf, and Kim Basinger reading The Awakening by Kate Chopin. The initial list of readings is now available.
A: Yes. It appeared in a French translation by Cyrille Arnavon in 1953.
That edition has illustrations by André Hubert. Here’s Edna and Robert:
And here is the first page of the 1953 French translation:
The Awakening has also been translated again into French and into other languages, including Chinese, Czech, Dutch, Galician, German, Hungarian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Serbian, and Spanish. If you know of a translation into another language, would you write to us?
A 2010 translation into German:
In addition, our thanks to Noriko Fujikawa at Tsuda College in Tokyo, Japan, for telling us about a Japanese translation of The Awakening. “The book,” Noriko writes, “is called Mezame (which means awakening in Japanese). It was translated by Yoshiko Takita and published by Arechi Shuppansha in 1995 (with a 2nd edition in 2004).”
Mariko Utsu of Yonezawa Women’s Junior College adds that there have been three Japanese translations of The Awakening so far, each by a different translator. The one listed above is the second one.
They are, in the order of publication:
Mezame, translated by Kazuko Sugisaki, published by Bokushinsha in 1977.
Mezame, the edition above, the one translated by Yoshiko Takita. It also includes “The Story of an Hour,” “Emancipation: a Life Fable,” “At the ‘Cadian Ball,” “The Storm,” and “Désirée’s Baby.”
There is also, Mariko tells us, a translation of some Chopin short stories:
Keito Shopan Tanpenshu: Nanbu no Shinsho Fukei (meaning, “A Collection of Short Stories by Kate Chopin: An Imagined Scenery of the South”) translated by Kazuko Sugisaki, published by Kirihara Shoten in 1988. The collected stories are: “With the Violin,” “Mrs. Mobry’s Reason,” “A Harbinger,” “Doctor Chevalier’s Lie,” “Beyond the Bayou,” “Désirée’s Baby,” “Caline,” “An Idle Fellow,” “The Story of an Hour,” “The Kiss,” “Her Letters,” “Dead Men’s Shoes,” “A Pair of Silk Stockings,” “Aunt Limpy’s Interference,” “The Blind Man,” “The Locket,” “Elizabeth Stock’s One Story,” “The While Eagle,” and “The Wood-Choppers.”
And there is a collection of stories by women. Its title is Onnatachi no Jikan: Rezubian Tanpen Shosetsu Shu (meaning, “Women’s Time: Lesbian Short Stories”), edited and translated by Maki Tonegawa, published by Heibonsha in 1998. The Chopin story this book includes is “Lilacs.”
A: Yes, there are at least two versions. In 1991, Mary Lambert directed the made-for-cable Grand Isle, with Kelly McGillis playing Edna Pontellier. The film is available on VHS, but not, apparently, on DVD:
Also, earlier, in 1982, director Bob Graham did a feature-length version of the novel called The End of August. It’s apparently no longer easily available, but you may be able to find a VHS copy:
IMDb.com, the Internet Movie Database, includes a filmography of works based on Kate Chopin’s fiction. The listing includes nine films–long and short–made between 1956 and 2014.
There is, in addition, what many critics consider a fine novel by Robert Stone called Children of Light, about a production company making a film of The Awakening using a performer struggling with some of the same issues that Edna struggles with.
For more information about The Awakening
PBS program, “Kate Chopin: A Re-Awakening”
Kate Chopin, The Awakening by students of Barbara Ewell at Loyola University of New Orleans
The Vaughn Dance Company in Los Angeles premiered on November 7, 2008, an original modern dance production, Reaching Out for the Unlimited, based on Kate Chopin’s novel The Awakening. It featured the music of Grammy-winning composer/guitarist Andrew York.
According to the announcement, “Vaughn Dance Company’s adaptation of The Awakening traces the heroine’s emotional journey, exploring her relationships with friends, lovers, and the sea. Andrew York’s music brings alive the emotional arc of this story with a score that includes new, unpublished pieces and a live performance by York. Making its mark with sensual shapes and undulating movement, Jennifer Vaughn’s choreography is a palpable embodiment of music that captivates broader audiences and dance aficionados alike.”
Jennifer Vaughn told us in an email message that her production “traces Edna’s emotional journey, focusing on her complex relationships—with friends, lovers, and with the sea. The company’s ten members embody these roles, including different ‘Ednas’ who change as she discovers new parts of herself. The dancers also become the beckoning sea, the entity which both cradles and emboldens Edna but also sweeps her away.”
She continued, “I chose very simple staging and costuming—very plain and timeless. And for logistical reasons, we chose not to address Edna’s relationship with her children. I believe that audience members who know the story will recognize much of it, but I’ve tried to design the production in such a way that those who do not know the story will still be able to get something out of it.”
A new production of The Awakening was presented by Savage Umbrella and 3AM Productions at Gremlin Theatre in St. Paul, Minnesota, from April 2 to 17, 2010. The script is by Laura Leffler-McCabe, who also directed. The production includes music composed by Candy Bilyk and performed by a trio of instrumentalists, with singing by the cast.
From the announcement for the production:
“‘The book is beautiful,’ Leffler-McCabe says when asked why she decided to take on the project as writer and director. ‘It’s this proto-modernist text full of slice-of-life details and conversations, along with these really lyrical expressive passages of a character in turmoil.’
“The show, which boasts a cast of more than a dozen, was company-created, and incorporates music and movement to do justice to a story that begins in a woman’s heart, then radiates with seismic repercussions into the world around her.
“‘We started workshopping with the cast back in September,’ says Leffler-McCabe. ‘We cussed a lot, fought some, danced, experimented, and honed in on something that gets to the heart of what Chopin was trying to do.'”
Laura Leffler-McCabe also sent us a performance excerpt. “We put this together for a grant we’re applying for,” she says, “so it’s short and of a sort of strange moment, but it hopefully gives an idea of the style of the production.”
Reading of a New Screenplay Based on The Awakening
New York area residents and visitors attended a reading of a new screenplay based on Kate Chopin’s The Awakening. The screenplay was written by Jim Sherry, the production directed by Joyce Wu.
Photo: “Girl at Sunrise.” Copyright Steve Puntolillo, 2011
The reading was held on June 12th, 2011, at TheaterLab, 137 W. 14th Street New York, NY 10011.
For students and scholars
The Complete Works of Kate Chopin. Edited by Per Seyersted. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969, 2006.
The Awakening and Selected Stories. Edited by Sandra Gilbert. New York: Penguin, 1984.
Kate Chopin: Complete Novels and Stories. Edited by Sandra Gilbert. New York: Library of America, 2002.
Some of the items listed here may be available online through university or public libraries. For items published before 2000, check these listings:
McConnell, Mikaela. “A Lost Sense Of Self By Ignoring Other In The Awakening By Kate Chopin.” Explicator 72.1 (2014): 41–44.
Franklin, Rosemary F. “Chopin’s The Awakening: A Semiotic Novel.” PSYART: 17 August 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2011.
Davis,William A. Jr. “Female Self–Sacrifice in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening: Conflict and Context.” Notes and Queries 58.4 (2011): 563–67.
Kornasky, Linda. “‘Discovery Of A Treasury': Orrick Johns and the Influence of Kate Chopin’s The Awakening on Edith Summers Kelley’s Weeds.” Studies In American Naturalism 6.2 (2011): 197–215.
Mou, Xianfeng. “Kate Chopin’s Narrative Techniques and Separate Space in The Awakening.” Southern Literary Journal 44.1 (2011): 103–20.
Tas, Mehmet Recep. “Kate Chopin’s The Awakening in the Light of Freud’s Structural Model of the Psyche.” Uluslararas Sosyal Arastrmalar Dergisi/Journal of International Social Research 4.19 (2011): 413–18.
Wehner, David Z. ” ‘A Lot Up for Grabs': The Idiosyncratic, Syncretic Religious Temperament of Kate Chopin.” American Literary Realism 43.2 (2011): 154–68.
Mainland, Catherine. “Chopin’s Bildungsroman: Male Role Models in The Awakening.” Mississippi Quarterly 64.1–2 (2011): 75–85.
Witherow, Jean. ” ‘Abysses of Solitude': Chopin’s Intertextuality with Flaubert.” Mississippi Quarterly 64.1–2 (2011): 87–113.
Ramos, Peter. “Unbearable Realism: Freedom, Ethics and Identity in The Awakening.” College Literature 37.4 (2010): 145–65.
Freeman, Barbara Claire. “The Awakening: Waking Up at the End of the Line.” The Sublime. 1-26. New York, NY: Bloom’s Literary Criticism, 2010.
Kohn, Robert E. “Edna Pontellier Floats into the Twenty-First Century.” Journal of Popular Culture 43.1 (2010): 137-155.
Stuffer, Deidre. “Edna Pontellier’s Strip Tease of Essentiality: An Examination of the Metaphorical Role of Clothing in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening.” Sigma Tau Delta Review 7. (2010): 116-123.
Brown, Kathleen L., and Peter Lev. Teaching Literary Theory Using Film Adaptations Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.
Dix, Andrew, and Lorna Piatti. “‘Bonbons in Abundance': The Politics of Sweetness in Kate Chopin’s Fiction.” Culinary Aesthetics and Practices in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. 53-69. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Evans, Robert C. “Renewal and Rebirth in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening.” Rebirth and Renewal. 13-24. New York, NY: Bloom’s Literary Criticism, 2009.
Hebert-Leiter, Maria. “The Awakening Awakened.” In Becoming Cajun, Becoming American: The Acadian in American Literature from Longfellow to James Lee Burke, 57–78. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2009.
Miyagawa, Chiori. “A Mystical Place Called Grand Isle: Adapting Kate Chopin’s The Awakening.” Feminist Theatrical Revisions of Classic Works: Critical Essays. 204-214. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009.
Pettersson, Bo. “Narratology and Hermeneutics: Forging the Missing Link.” Narratology in the Age of Cross-Disciplinary Narrative Research. 11-34. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter, 2009.
Batinovich, Garnet Ayers. “Storming the Cathedral: The Antireligious Subtext in Kate Chopin’s Works.” Kate Chopin in the Twenty-First Century: New Critical Essays. 73-90. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.
Camastra, Nicole. “Venerable Sonority in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening.” American Literary Realism 40.2 (Winter 2008): 154-166.
Castillo, Susan. “‘Race’ and Ethnicity in Kate Chopin’s Fiction.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 59-72. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Chang, Li-Wen. “The Awakening: Chopin’s Reading of Leisure-Class Women in Ourland.” Kate Chopin in the Twenty-First Century: New Critical Essays. 137-157. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.
Clark, Zoila. “The Bird That Came Out of the Cage: A Foucauldian Feminist Approach to Kate Chopin’s The Awakening.” Journal for Cultural Research 12.4 (Oct. 2008): 335-347.
González Groba, Constante. On Their Own Premises: Southern Women Writers and the Homeplace Valencia, Spain: Universitat de València, 2008.
Heilmann, Ann. “The Awakening and New Woman Fiction.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 87-104. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Horner, Avril. “Kate Chopin, Choice and Modernism.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 132-146. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Joslin, Katherine. “Kate Chopin on Fashion in a Darwinian World.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 73-86. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Koloski, Bernard. “The Awakening: The First 100 Years.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 161-173. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Liu, Hongwei. “Lun li huan jing yu xiao shuo Jue xing de ju jue yu jie shou.” Foreign Literature Studies/Wai Guo Wen Xue Yan Jiu 30.6  (2008): 71-75.
Nisetich, Rebecca. “From ‘Shadowy Anguish’ to ‘The Million Lights of the Sun': Racial Iconography in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening.” Kate Chopin in the Twenty-First Century: New Critical Essays. 121-136. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.
Nolan, Elizabeth. “The Awakening as Literary Innovation: Chopin, Maupassant and the Evolution of Genre.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 118-131. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Taylor, Helen. “‘The Perfume of the Past': Kate Chopin and Post-Colonial New Orleans.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 147-160. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Thrailkill, Jane F. “Chopin’s Lyrical Anodyne for the Modern Soul.” Kate Chopin in the Twenty-First Century: New Critical Essays. 33-52. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2008.
Toth, Emily. “What We Do and Don’t Know About Kate Chopin’s Life.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 13-26. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Worton, Michael. “Reading Kate Chopin Through Contemporary French Feminist Theory.” The Cambridge Companion to Kate Chopin. 105-117. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2008.
Zaugg, Brigitte. “Kate Chopin and Ellen Glasgow: Between Visibility and Oblivion.” Résonances 10 (Oct. 2008): 179-202.
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